Has Mr. Kennedy claimed that transgenderism is caused by atrazine?

Mr. Kennedy believes the link between atrazine is speculative, but concerning and worth further research.

Numerous reputable scientific studies have explored the consequences of atrazine exposure on African clawed frogs and other vertebrates. While frogs are especially susceptible to atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, their mechanisms of action are not exclusive to frogs.

A. "Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis)" - Published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, this study uncovers startling findings. It reveals that atrazine exposure results in the demasculinization and complete feminization of male frogs. Intriguingly, some male frogs even transition into functional females capable of mating and producing viable eggs. These outcomes demonstrate the profound impact of atrazine on the reproductive and sexual development of these amphibians. [35]

B. "Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes" - The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology presents this study, which establishes the consistent impact of atrazine across various vertebrate classes. The research highlights the herbicide's ability to demasculinize male gonads and induce partial or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These findings underscore the significant and specific effects of atrazine on sexual development in diverse species. [36]

C. "Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses" - The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences contributes to this study, which proposes a potential mechanism underlying the observed effects of atrazine. The research suggests that atrazine disrupts steroidogenesis, leading to decreased androgens and increased estrogen synthesis and secretion. Consequently, this disruption results in the loss of masculine features and the induction of ovaries. The study's findings have broad implications for understanding the impact of atrazine on sexual development in frogs and potentially other organisms. [37]

For those concerned that it is erroneous to compare humans to amphibians, the physiological pathways by which these chemicals operate are by no means limited to frogs. Here are some non-frog studies that merit concern:

D. Christiansen S, Scholze M, Axelstad M, Boberg J, Kortenkamp A, Hass U (2008). “Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat,” Int J Androl. 31(2):241-248. [38]

E. Crofton KM, Craft ES, Hedge JM, Gennings C, Simmons JE, Carchman RA, Carter WH Jr, DeVito MJ (2005). “Thyroid-hormone-disrupting chemicals: evidence for dose-dependent additivity or synergism,” Environ Health Perspect. 113(11):1549-54. [39]

F. Hotchkiss AK, Parks-Saldutti LG, Ostby JS, Lambright C, Furr J, Vandenbergh JG, Gray LE Jr.Biol Reprod. (2004) “A mixture of the ‘antiandrogens’ linuron and butyl benzyl phthalate alters sexual differentiation of the male rat in a cumulative fashion,” Biol Reprod. Dec;71(6):1852-61. [40]

G. Kortenkamp A (2007). “Ten years of mixing cocktails: a review of combination effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals,” Environ Health Perspect. 115 Suppl 1:98-105. [41]

H. Rajapakse N, Silva E, Kortenkamp A. (2002) “Combining xenoestrogens at levels below individual no-observed-effect concentrations dramatically enhances steroid hormone action,” Environ Health Perspect. Sep;110(9):917- 21 [42]

[35] https://www.pnas.org/doi/abs/10.1073/pnas.0909519107
[36] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960076011000665
[37] https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.082121499
[38] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240992/
[39] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1310917/
[40] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15286035/
[41] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2174407/
[42] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240992/

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